About Red Sea
Nobody precisely doesn't know, why Red sea named Red. Probably, this name has been given because of the seaweed painting for short time of seasonal growth is usually bright-dark blue waters of the sea to red-brown colour. But, when the deserted sun sits down and in motionless sea water the pink heated hills are reflected, it would be desirable to find to it more poetic explanation. From the geological point of view Red sea is very young. Its formation has begun about 40 million years ago when in earth crust there was a crack and the East African break was formed. The African continental plate has separated from Arabian, and between them in earth crust the failure which gradually throughout millenia was filled with sea water was formed. Plates moving constantly, therefore rather equal coast of Red sea disperse every which way with a speed of 10 mm year, or 1 m in century. So there was a development of Atlantic ocean, and, probably, through 200 million years Red sea can reach the same size.
Earth crust motions result and in other changes of a relief. As coast of the growing sea depart from each other, it means, that the rivers follow from it, instead of run into it. Besides, as a result of volcanic activity along border of tectonic plates water in the sea heats up to 59°С - it the warmest on a planet.
At level of salinity of 4,1 percent Red sea as well more salty, than any ocean. (The average level of salinity of ocean water makes about 3,5 percent.) before about 25 million years ago has completely opened having spilt between Indian ocean and Red sea, all water getting to the growing sea, evaporated, therefore extensive hydrochloric layers were formed. Later movement of continental plates have mentioned these adjournment, having extended salt on all sea. Under scorching beams of the tropical sun there is an intensive evaporation of superficial water that does a hydrochloric solution even more concentrated. As the rivers do not run into Red sea, and deposits drops out only 25 mm a year - characteristic quantity for desert, - its depth should decrease annually for 1,8 m. Without water from Indian ocean, flowing into Red sea through Bab el Mandeb, Red Sea eventually completely would evaporate.
In process of a divergence of plates along a break line there are emptiness which are filled with the magma constantly rising from under earth crust. Sea water contains huge quantities of mineral substances which get to it from magma in deep hollows where the temperature and salinity are especially high. Scientists have found out such 15 hollows in which as believe, concentration of heavy metals can exceed in 30 000 times their concentration in usual sea water. Cost of iron, manganese, copper and the zinc containing only in top 9 m of ground adjournment, is estimated in two billion dollars. Minerals can appear the main property of Red sea.
However today the basic riches of this sea - abundance of sea animals and fish. Thanks to a heat on a narrow strip of the water lasting along abrupt coast, one of the most magnificent coral reefs on the Earth were generated. These reefs carry to the youngest, them of only 6000-7000 years. In Red sea 177 various kinds of corals are, many of which usually meet in the equatorial seas, on 2500 km to the south. Dense coral thickets in turn - a place of dwelling more than 1000 kinds of fishes about which third is found only here.
Multi-coloured fishes-parrots the well developed teeth grind corals, taking from them nutritious seaweed. On a surface of reefs starfishes and slugs move. Especially it is a lot of fishes from family wrasses - more than 50 kinds. Some kinds of fishes have developed ability to change a floor that is peculiar reefs to fishes and in other parts of the world. Thanks to it they have the best chances of a survival. If in one of generations the lack of the males, some females is observed, reaching a sexual maturity, become larger and get brighter colouring, than others. They are transformed in the male, named scientific supermales. In reproduction the supermale involves set of females. Thus, in the course of reproduction both types of males that provides a kind survival take part.
The extraordinary beauty of an underwater life of Red sea - a narrow strip of the water which has put in boundless desert, - sharply contrasts with its fruitless coast. About 200 million years ago Red sea was only small line on enormous Afro-Asian continent. Today this deep tropical sea which can turn to boundless ocean.
On materials http://www.goegypt.ru/redsea.htm
Corals of Red sea
Corals (греч. korallion) are sea animals of a class of coral polyps. The majority of corals forms limy, the horn skeleton of the various form is more rare.
Thickets madrepor's corals make a basis of coral reeves. Corals name also a skeletal layer of colonies noble, or a red coral, and black (from group горгонарий) from which produce a beads and other ornaments.
Colour of corals depends on structure and quantity of organic connections: there are not only pink, but also red, blue, white and even black corals. Red corals name "bloody foam", "a blood flower", black - "royal corals". Pink, red and black corals are considered as the most valuable.
The coral reef is the original magnet for various reasons drawing crabs, лангустов, molluscs, fishes and аквалагистов.
In itself corals are not poisonous. But about a rough surface of a coral it is easy to be scratched. Parts of corals can get to a wound which is quickly infected. Symptoms simple - a pain, burning, an itch, a hypostasis, the expressed reddening of a skin.
If similar trouble happens with you, try to clear the amazed site of a skin as soon as possible. It is quite good to inoculate against a tetanus. In the presence of a strong inflammation the doctor can appoint antibiotics of local application.
"By rings, clusters, chains are scattered on the island sea. White foam borders them. Green leaves of palm trees caps hang over grey sand.
These are coral islands. Not volcanoes, not sea deposits, not earthquakes have created them. They were constructed by small sea animals - coral polyps. Each of them lives in a calcareous cover which builds, extracting известь from sea water.
Polyps millions. Their calcareous houses, growing together, form underwater plates, walls, towers. Once scientists have drilled coral island on depth of 350 metres. Everywhere the homogeneous limy file has met it.
But polyps live not more deeply 50 metres... Corals love light. They lodge on shoal round island. Then the island for any reasons starts to fall. It falls, and corals hastily build on a wall round it. When the island absolutely will leave under water, on a surface there will be only a coral ring - an atoll ".
The name: the Arabian Republic Egypt
On a state system, Egypt - independent republic with the presidential form of board. The higher legislature - unicameral National meeting.
The population: In the country lives about 64,8 million persons, 98 % of the population Egyptians (Arabs).
State language: Arabian, in large cities and on resorts widespread English and French. 90 % of the population practise Islam суннитского sense, the others belong to Christians (копты).
Geographical arrangement and sights: Egypt - one of the largest Arabian states, which total area makes 101,4 thousand sq. km (a desert share in a total area - 96 %). It is located on two continents: the most part in Northeast Africa along the river Nile (the longest river in the world), the Sinai Peninsula is in Asia. From the north of coast of Egypt washes Mediterranean sea, on border with Suez canal, in the east of the country - Red sea.
The Northeast of Egypt borders on Israel (on the Sinai Peninsula), the West - with Libya, the south - with Sudan. On all territory of the country invaluable monuments of Ancient Egypt are located. One of the brightest sights are pyramids Хеопса, the Sphinx of Giza, a unique Egyptian museum, Temples of Luxor and Карнака. Besides ancient Christian and Muslim monuments of culture, Egypt as is well-known for the resorts - Hurgada on coast of Red sea, all coast of Mediterranean sea and the Sinai Peninsula.
Culture, customs, laws: On representation of ancient Egyptians, the life did not come to an end with death: the body died, and the soul continued to live in other world representing a copy of the real. Relatives should, therefore provide died a worthy life in a next world, differently dead «will come back with a wind», and their revenge will be terrible. «The book dead» - the collection of the spells saving dead from danger, was one of the most important posthumous gifts.
Egyptians believed, that in other world the person can take the same place in a society, therefore presented dead according to a social status. Religious representations of Egyptians were inconsistent enough so Осирис simultaneously was the god dead and the god of fertility. Other gods of Egyptians: the god of air and crop Амон, the patron died Анубис in an image of a jackal, the god of fertility Апис - a bull with a solar disk, the god of sun Атон - a solar disk with palms on the end of each beam, the goddess of love and holidays Баст - the woman with a head of a cat or simply cat, the god of the sky and light Chorus - the person with a head of the falcon in a crown, the patron of architects, scientists and doctors Имхотеп, goddess-mother Isida - the woman with horns of a cow and a solar disk, the god-creator and the god of dead Birds - a mummy with the open head, "truth" standing on a hieroglyph, the god of sun Ра - the person with a head of the falcon and a solar disk, the god of the moon and wisdom. That is the person with a head of an ibis, with a brush and a palette in hands, the goddess of love and destiny Хатхор - the woman with horns of a cow or a cow, god-creator Hnum - the person with a head of a ram with the twirled horns. Art during this period served basically to the religion, all its products were a link between gods and people. Art of koptov-Christians has arisen on border of an epoch of Pharaohs and the Greek-Roman period.
Statues of that period represented not only gods, but also simple people - peasants, officials and even monks. Muslim art differs purely religious orientation, the image of the person in painting and a sculpture is forbidden. Ornament art is especially developed, art the calligraphy to this day is considered. And the Muslim architecture is embodied, first of all, in the mosques, which basic lines - open space and greatness. The Muslim belief in many respects defines a rhythm of a life of Egyptians. So, for example, five times a day муэдзин on a loudspeaker causes believers on a pray, and in sacred month рамадан the public life fades, official bodies work with 10. Customs of an epoch of Pharaohs almost are completely eradicated by Islam. But even in a city, let alone a countryside, it is often possible to meet people in national clothes: Men carry shirts of free breed, more often white, and women put on in black, recovering the dress bright ornaments or a lace.
Under the family insisting, many women carry хигаб - a version паранджи, hiding not only the person, but also hair and a long wide dress - галабею, that is characteristic for Muslim culture. The clothes choice also is often caused by a heavy financial position.
Security measures: to the Women going to a city without men, it is recommended to be conservative in clothes choice. Men in shorts or bared to a belt cause sneers, circulation is barefoot reprehensible, as a sign of extreme poverty. Money and valuable things is recommended to be stored in the safe in hotel. It is not necessary to bathe in Nile and to drink water from under the crane. Necessarily take with itself a cream from the sun with high sun-protection effect. If not to neglect usual safety measures, it is possible to feel quiet enough in Egypt. Robberies and robberies - the phenomena uncharacteristic for the country. To be afraid it is possible only pickpockets in the tourist centres.
Favourite dishes: For many Egyptians a breakfast the dinner and a supper make flat cakes (aisch balladi), beans (foul) and vegetable quenelles (tamija). All it is tasty enough and is on sale everywhere. Everywhere in streets is on sale shaverma, at cheap small small restaurants often prepare only one dish, for example, macaroni with an onions, lentil and sharp seasonings (kuschari).
Dishes with giblets and brains are popular in Egypt, and the camel liver is considered a rare delicacy. Tourists like various snack : beef with spices (pasterma), paste from eggplants and garlic (babaghanoug), juicy firm cheese (gibna rumi), a cream with vegetable oil (tehina). It is necessary to try sharp salad from tomatoes with cheese (gibna bi tamatem), a lentil soup with a lemon (schurbet ads). Cutlets concern the basic meat dishes from рубленой beef or mutton (kofta, kebab), delicacies are considered has sung also stuffed pigeons (hamam mahschi). On a garnish usually submit beans in a tomato sauce or the baked potato.
Sweets usually prepare with a honey considerable quantity: pies with a cheese stuffing, the vermicelli baked with sugar, honey and nuts (konafa), baklava. Not so it is luscious malahabiszha(dairy rice with rose attar and pistachios). On end of month ramadan usually prepare special dishes.
It is possible to choose fresh juice from drinks, light beer «Stella Local», good red wine «the Lobster Khayyam», "Pharaohs", «Gianaklis» is pleasant on taste.
National holidays: Official, established as the legislation on a Gregorian calendar holidays are considered: on January, 1st (New year), on April, 25th (clearing of the Sinai Peninsula in October war of 1973), on May, 1st (Day of work), on June, 18th (anniversary of a conclusion from Egypt the British occupational armies), on July, 23rd (anniversary of revolution of 1952), on September, 23rd (Day of a victory over Israel in 1956), on October, 6th (Day of army), on October, 24th (a capture the Egyptian army of Suez in 1973), on December, 23rd (a capture of Port Said in 1956).
Ramadan - month of a post and a holiday (it is counted on a lunar calendar, therefore does not coincide from year to year, in 2001 was celebrated on November, 14th), the three-day holiday finishing post Id an ale-fitr (is celebrated upon termination of sacred month), a three-day holiday of sacrifice Ид an ale-adha (is celebrated in 70 days after the previous holiday), Islamic new year (usually it is necessary on the end of April - the beginning of March), Mavalid- the forbidden holidays sacred (worship sacred in Islam is forbidden, therefore it is forbidden and to celebrate days of their birth, but all of them are marked by the population within several days).
Koptsky holidays: a holiday of spring Zham-en-Nessim (coincides with orthodox Easter), Christmas (it is marked always on January, 7th).
Secular actions: the international book fair (passes in Cairo within a week), the international film festival (the Asian and Arabian films are presented basically), fairs of camels and camel run (the middle of April and the end of October).
The official day off: Friday.
The helpful information for the tourist
Videorecordings, films, printing editions which contradict norms of Islam, to morals and morals, and also can cause a damage of a state security and to a public order.
Private use subjects are authorised for importing and taking out without declaring.
It is forbidden to break off or cut and take out corals, for infringement the large fine is imposed.
It is recommended to carry easy clothes from a clap and a headdress. In winter months it is recommended to take with itself a warm sweater. The footwear on a firm sole is necessary for visiting of pyramids and the Valley of Pharaohs.
Drugstores are everywhere, medicines release without the recipe more often and there are they cheaply enough.
To photograph everything is authorised, except military bases. To photograph people, it is better to ask permissions. In museums, temples and tombs for photographing possibility it is necessary to pay from 10-20 (the usual camera) to 50 (support) of pounds, for shooting by a videocamera 150-200 pounds take. The film can be bought everywhere.
Public toilets for Egypt the phenomenon rare, therefore it is not necessary to hesitate to come into a toilet in restaurant or hotel. For using usually leave 1 pound.
The visa: the Russian citizens receive visas at the airport. Cost of the visa of 15 dollars. Permissions to movement on the country it is not required, except for borders with Libya, Sudan, a line of demarcation with Israel and a southern part of Red sea.
How to reach: by Plane from Moscow: regular flights of "Aeroflot" and «Egypt Air» daily to Cairo. To Hurgada fly regular and charter flights «Transaero».
Time: Lags behind from Moscow at 1 o'clock.
Currency, money, course: Egyptian pound = to 100 piastres. In a course of a banknote advantage 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 pounds, 25 and 50 piastres. And as coins on 5, 10, 20 and 25 piastres. Egyptian pound: 1$ = 5.3 LE, 1 EU =8.3 LE.
Banks: Work daily, except Friday and Saturday, from 8.30 till. Branches in large hotels and the airports work all day and night.
Shops: Shops and benches are opened from 10.00 till. In Hurgada there are large supermarkets of the European type, such as "Underground" and «Abu Ashara ». Alcoholic drinks can be got only in cafe, bars, restaurants and duty-free shops. From Egypt except souvenirs usually bring products from a clap and a skin, footwear. If on the goods there is a price to bargain senselessly, it is possible only at its absence. At purchase of several things it is possible to expect the discount. In February and August shops arrange sale (sale), the prices decrease then on 25-50 %.
Climate, weather: the Climate of Egypt the hot subtropical continental. Hot summer and warm winter with small deposits. For all territory of Egypt the big daily fluctuations of temperature of air are characteristic. For example, in January-February in Cairo the day temperature can reach 29 degrees With, and to fall to 0 With at night. During the spring period dry hot winds - «хамсин» blow. The Most successful time for rest is May, August, October, November (the temperature fluctuates at this time from 23 to 27 degrees).
Communication (phones, mail, Internet cafe): Mail is opened since Saturday till Thursday from 8.00 till, official bodies - with 8, do not work on Friday. The Internet cafe in Hurgada is, practically, at every turn, everywhere are established мессенджеры and there is a possibility to talk to relatives long and cheaply. Cost of 1 hour per Internet cafe fluctuates from 2 to 10 pounds. In streets many long-distance call boxes to call it is possible by a card. The best decision - to get a local sim card for a mobile phone. To call to Russia, it is necessary to type 007, a code of a city and number of the subscriber.
Codes of cities
(In the country before a code type 0):
Alexandria - 3, Aswan - 97, Beni Suef - 82, Giza - 2, Cairo - 2, Luxor - 95, Port Said - 66, Suez - 62, Tanta - 40, Hurgada - 65, Ehnasia - 82.
Useful phones, emergency:
Police - 1 22. First aid - 1 23. At a fire - 1 25.
Embassy of Egypt in Moscow:
Kropotkinsky lane, 12, bodies. 095 246 3096, 246 0234, a fax 246 1064.
The Russian embassy in Egypt:
95, EL-Giza St., Giza, tel. (10 202 348 93 54.
Pressure in a network: 220 volt.
(City, trains, buses):
Across Egypt it is possible to move by planes of local airline, train (the ticket price to a compartment of 1 class with the conditioner from Cairo to Alexandria nearby 11 USD). Bus lines connect the most remote corners of the country with large cities. The most convenient kind of a municipal transportation - a taxi, but they manage expensively enough (30-50 pounds from the centre of Cairo to the airport, 10-15 pounds - from the centre to pyramids). For long-distance transportations fixed-route taxis are used also.
Four-day cruise over Nile gives the chance to familiarise with ancient monuments from Luxor to Aswan.
Tip (baksheesh) at a rate of 5 % from the account sum can be left to waiters, taxi drivers, the personnel of hotels.
At the airport or large hotel it is possible to hire the car. Car hire will manage from 140 to 300 pounds a day (the car to reserve in advance better). It is necessary to have at itself the driver's licence of the international sample.
Restrictions on transportation
Hand luggage of passengers
The Egyptian authorities as execution with OACI/ICAO recommend restrictions of contents of hand luggage of the passenger, since March, 1st, 2007.
New rules are subject to execution on all international commercial flights which are taking off from Egypt irrespective of a direction and airline.
The passenger can transport in hand luggage the limited quantity of a liquid, gel and aerosols (water, spirits, лосьоны, creams, shower gels, shampoos, ink, liquid medicines, a tooth-paste, liquid soap, deodorants, scented water etc.) in containers in the maximum volume of 100 ml. Everyone.
There are also certain rules on packing of the given subjects, it is authorised to transport:
Liquids and gels in containers in volume no more than 100 ml. In a transparent plastic package on a lightning (the size 20х20);
Liquid medicines, under condition of presence of the instruction addressed to the passenger or the medical certificate which necessarily it is necessary to give to workers of safety;
A children's food in the liquid form provided that the passenger can test to (use) it if the request from workers of the airport arrives.
Each container should not exceed volume of 100 ml.;
The plastic package should be closed (with a lightning) and transparent;
The quantity of a children's food should not exceed volume which is necessary during flight.
After passage of the control of safety, passengers can freely buy drinks in shops Duty Free, not exceeding customs restrictions.
The given restriction mentions only transportation of hand luggage of the passenger and does not extend on the things which have been handed over in luggage. We recommend ALL liquids to place in luggage.
Rules of entrance to Egypt
The documents necessary for reception of the visa on an arrival to Egypt
1. The passport (officially operating not less than 6 months from the date of the termination of the planned round). But under the arrangement with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Egypt of the Russian tourists let in the country with the passport, period of validity which expires not earlier than 2 months before the trip termination.
2. The tourist voucher.
On an arrival the visa in the form of mark is glued.
Mark cost makes 15 USD.
The sum is not collected from children till 12 years entered in the passport to parents.
The visa opened on an arrival, gives the right to stay to territories of Egypt in a current of 1 month.
ATTENTION! At the airport of Cairo the visa on an arrival is not put!
The documents necessary for registration of the visa in Consulate of Egypt
The passport (operating not less than 3 months from the date of the termination of the planned round).
1 questionnaire filled with Latin letters.
1 photos (3x4).
Registration x-copy in a stay place in territory of the Russian Federation.
Birth certificate copy (for minors).
The tourist voucher.
Cost of registration of the visa without a personal appearance in Consulate:
- For citizens of the Russian Federation - 25 USD,
Consular gathering with personal presence at Consulate: for citizens of the Russian Federation - 350 roubles,
- For citizens of other countries - 860 roubles.
Consular gathering is not collected from children till 12 years entered in the passport to parents.
Term of registration of the visa - 5 working days.
Requirements to documents
- Presence of the signature of the owner.
- At registration of the visa passport period of validity should be not less than 3 months from the date of the termination of the planned round.
- Children from 14 years should have the passport.
- Children till 14 years can have the passport or should be entered in the passport of parents. On children entered in the passport be more senior 6 years should the photo is pasted.
- In passports of citizens of Uzbekistan and Belarus there should be a stamp of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (the exit visa abroad).
- Registration period of validity in a stay place in territory of the Russian Federation should be not less than 90 days.
Councils to the tourist
In the first days of rest abstain from long stay on the sun not to spoil to itself rest. During long excursions to open air cover open parts of a body easy clothes from a clap. In the evening, going on walk, we advise to grasp an easy jacket or a sweater - will not prevent, since in the evenings in Egypt cool.
Water in Egypt very expensive. Depending on container can reach 1-2$. Water is better for buying in shops since in hotel it is much more expensive.
The goods and souvenirs are better for buying from dealers: at the same quality the price can be several times cheaper than the store.
For tourists with a commercial vein we inform, that Egypt cellular telephones are very much appreciated: in comparison with their cost in Russia the price in Egypt can be twice more expensive.
For the valuable information of thanks a site